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Tight vs Loose Coupling

Property 1=Tight vs Loose Coupling

We all know what coupling is. It refers to joining two things (or people) together into a single unit. Think chain links or railroad cars, with their steel couplers. In software, the concept of coupling has a related meaning. An application or enterprise architecture can feature “tight coupling” or “loose coupling” between its constituent parts. This article sets out the meaning of tight and loose coupling in software and offers insights into what’s good about each approach and when to use them.


What is coupling?

In the world of IT, coupling refers to the relationships between components of a software application, or between multiple applications. The “tightness” of the coupling is about the level of dependency between two such elements. In a tightly coupled application or architecture, two or more components that interact with one another must be present and functioning at the same time. In most cases, a tightly coupled application or architecture will feature hard- or deliberately-coded instructions that specify how the dependency will function. 

The code will say, in effect, “component A must invoke component B.” For example, the front end of a tightly coupled app would be directly and deliberately connected to resources on the back end. Neither the front end nor the back end will work without those connections. Put another way, there’s a “binding” between the components. Such bindings are emblematic of a purpose-built system. 

In contrast, the components of a loosely coupled application or architecture can function independently. They’re detached and not obligated to rely on each other to perform their respective tasks. Each component might have its own front end, for instance. Collectively, a group of loosely coupled components can work together in any number of usage patterns.

Loose coupling was the foundational principle of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), which has been popularized in recent years through the widespread adoption of RESTful application programming interfaces (APIs). In an SOA, each service operates on its own, ready to serve any client. No component is forced or hard-coded into a connection with any other component. 

For example, a web service might perform a task like reporting the outside temperature. This loosely coupled component can give the temperature to dozens of different application components. Indeed, when the developers created the temperature reporting API, they may not have even known what software was going to invoke it. 

For some architects, “separation of concerns” is the same thing as loose coupling. It’s a related, but distinct concept. Separation of concerns is a higher-level idea that refers to modularizing software components, often arranging them in different layers of a program. There could be a user layer, a process layer, and a data layer, for example. The layers and modules have minimal overlap. Separation of concerns is analogous to loose coupling, but the latter is directed at the components and their design, versus the broader architectural principle embodied in the idea of separation of concerns.


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Benefits of loose coupling

Loose coupling offers a range of benefits to developers and architects. The most significant are greater flexibility, extensibility, and scalability. By decoupling the components of an application or an architecture, it becomes much easier to change configuration than it is with tight coupling. Replacing a single component does not require the redeployment of the entire application, which is frequently the case with tight coupling. 

A single component can be extended across many different use cases, resulting in broad interoperability between services. Developers can write code for isolated components with less concern that the code will disrupt other functions of the application. Testing is also more straightforward, as testers can run tests on a single component in isolation—generating narrow, meaningful results that identify problems in the component for remediation.

In terms of scalability, it is easier to scale up or scale out a single component than it is with a tightly coupled architecture. In a tightly coupled setup, it may be necessary to scale the entire application in order to add scale to just one component. 

Loosely coupled systems also have fewer dependencies and provide a natural way of isolating failures, which ultimately produces evolvable architectures. For example, event-driven architectures. An Event-Driven Architecture (EDA) is an architectural pattern that enables decoupled services to communicate with each other. It is based on the idea of events, which are triggered by certain activities or changes in the system. 

When an event occurs, it triggers a response from one or more services, allowing them to react in real-time and take appropriate action. This architecture allows for greater scalability and flexibility as it allows services to be decoupled from each other, making them easier to maintain and update. With EDA, businesses can quickly respond to changes in their environment and take advantage of new opportunities as they arise.


Benefits of tight coupling

Tight coupling has gotten a bad reputation in the fields of software development and enterprise architecture. There are some valid reasons for this, such as the lack of flexibility and scalability, but it’s also an unfortunate outcome of a state of mind that holds that everything new is good and all that is old must be bad. Loose coupling stands for apple pie, truth, justice, and the American way. Tight coupling, as represented by “dinosaur” monolithic applications, is toxic trash your grandfather hauled around in his Model T.

It's not so simple. There are situations that favor tight coupling. These mostly have to do with problems that arise with loose coupling, including complexity and expense. Loose coupling takes a greater investment of time and resources to realize when compared to comparatively simple and straightforward tight coupling. Indeed, the creation of a loosely coupled architecture requires specialized developer tools, infrastructure management solutions, API management solutions, and so forth. If the architecture doesn’t require flexibility, then it may not be worth the effort to take the loosely coupled approach.

For example, an application may have one resource that needs to connect with one specific interface. If that’s all that’s needed, tight coupling will do. In some cases, such as with legacy applications, there may be no alternative but to use tight coupling. The problem, of course, is that it can be hard to predict what future changes will be coming—so tight coupling may prove to be a false economy down the road.


Which is better?

Which is better, loose coupling or tight coupling? Sometimes, the question is irrelevant. You may be forced to use one or the other. Otherwise, the choice depends on the use case. In general, tight coupling should be the second choice, mostly because there are so many potential benefits to loose coupling—assuming that it’s not a major hassle to get set up for loose coupling and you can live with the complexity. If you have a modern application and API-based architecture, then it makes little sense to tightly couple application components.

When you build an application or an enterprise architecture, you will have coupling between its various components. You can choose tight or loose coupling. Loose coupling is the better option, most of the time. However, it creates complexity, so in some cases, it might be preferable to stay with a tightly coupled approach.

Noname Security can help you build a secure, reliable loosely coupled architecture based on APIs. Noname’s API discovery solution keeps developers and architects aware of all APIs in their environments. This capability enables them to be confident that they are always connecting to the most up-to-date and secure API version available. And, it ensures that loose coupling does not occur with old or “rogue” APIs that can expose the architecture to security risks.